DNA Structure

 

Let’s open our eyes and thought for a moment. Remember our old man right now. We might be aging as well. Alright!
This is true not only for us humans. In fact, in living things, aging has been compared to the natural decay of materials of objects. DNA damages occur continuously in cells of living organisms. The genetic theory of aging believes that lifespan is largely determined by the genes we inherit.

Aging is caused by accumulated damage to DNA, which in turn inhibits cells’ ability to function and express the appropriate genes. This damage is said to have been caused by one and/or many of the following.

DNA Damage Theories

Aging is caused by accumulated damage to DNA, which in turn inhibits cells’ ability to function and express the appropriate genes. This leads to cell death and overall aging of the organism.

  • DNA Damage/Repair Theory
  • Free Radical/Oxidation Theory
  • Mitochondrial DNA Theory
  • Radiation Theory

Built-In Breakdown Theories

Aging is a direct consequence of genetic programming. The causes for aging are directly built into the genome and cellular structure, as a sort of molecular clock.

  • Disposable Soma Theory
  • Genetic Theory
  • Immunological Theory
  • Telomere Theory

Free Radicals & Anti-Oxidants

 

Happy old man

 

Free Radicals
In general, a free radical is any molecule with one or more unpaired electrons in its valence shell.

Free radicals wreak havoc at a cellular level since they are able to:

  • break off cell membrane proteins, thereby destroying cellular identity.
  • fuse membrane lipid & proteins, hardening the cell membrane and leading to brittle and nonfunctional cells.
  • disrupt the nuclear membrane. Free radicals may expose genetic material in the nucleus, leaving the DNA open for mutation or destruction.
  • burden the immune system by damaging immune cells.
  • cause chronic diseases.

Antioxidants
Antioxidants are the body’s solution to oxidative stress.

Known antioxidants include:

  • enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase.
  • nutrients including vitamins C and E, beta carotene, selenium, cystene, uric acid.
  • synthetic molecules such as DSMO, BHT, and BHA.
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